Negative Mining
90% reduction in surface footprint of mining operations
Enables 1
gigaton of CO2 sequestration per year
50% increase in critical mineral recovery
5X increase in power production
30% reduction in lifetime stimulation costs
270B gallons of water saved by 2050
To reach goals of net-zero carbon emissions, we need critical minerals.
Sought after minerals, including copper, cobalt, lithium, nickel, and others are used to manufacture products like cell phones, rechargeable batteries, fluorescent lighting, catalytic converters, and more. As demand for these products continues to grow, traditional mining processes can’t keep up.

There are two ways to mine for these minerals: in-situ and ex-situ. Ex-situ mining, or surface mining, is the process of mining shallow mineral deposits by crushing and grinding the rock. In-situ mining, also called in-situ recovery, extracts minerals by circulating mineral-dissolving fluid through permeable pathways deep underground and producing a mineral-rich fluid at the surface.
Ex-Situ Mining Can’t Keep Up with Demand
Ex-situ mining is becoming less efficient because near-surface mineral ore grades are becoming lower and lower. Additionally, it is a very carbon-intensive process.

The mining industry needs efficient, cost-effective technologies to revolutionize how we extract critical minerals. Current ex-situ mining practices are environmentally hazardous, generate massive tailing piles, and have a large surface footprint.
In-Situ Mining is the Future
The CO2 reactive rocks (ultramafic rocks) have inherently low-permeability and require stimulation to increase the chemical reaction surface area and carbon sequestration potential.

Effectively managing the permeability of the subsurface ore-bodies will increase mineral yield recovery while also enabling net-negative carbon mining operations through CO2 sequestration and storage.
The Future of Geothermal Heating Systems
There is an enormous supply of geothermal heat in low-permeability rock just below the surface.

In order to recover this heat, we need to create enhanced permeability in shallow geothermal reservoirs to enable fluid to circulate through the hot-rock system.
How Electrical Reservoir Stimulation Can Increase In-Situ Mineral Recovery
Electrical Reservoir Stimulation increases directional permeability, maximizing the reactive surface area of the rock.

This enables increased CO2 storage and mineral recovery by unlocking the mining potential of deep mafic and ultramafic rocks. With electrical stimulation, we will change the future of in-situ mineral recovery.

Environmental Impact

In-situ mining decreases the footprint of surface facilities by 90%

100% of tailings associated with surface mining operations can be eliminated

Active permeability management allows ore bodies to be mined for more than 10 years

Decreasing Grades of Critical Minerals Accessible with Surface and Tunnel Mining
Decreasing grades of critical minerals accessible with surface and tunnel mining
Source: Stephen Lezak, Charles Cannon and, Thomas KochBlank, Low-Carbon Metals for a Low-Carbon World: A New Energy Paradigm forMines, Rocky Mountain Institute, 2019,
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