Geothermal
Heating & Cooling
5X increase in thermal energy production
195 million tons of CO2 emissions
avoided by 2030
LCOH as low as $13/MWh for
direct heat use
5X increase in power production
195 million tons of CO2 emissions
avoided by 2030
LCOH as low as
$13/MWh for
direct heat use
A CREATIVE SOLUTION FOR A COMMON NEED
More than 60 countries use direct geothermal heat.
While ground-source heat pumps can be used to heat and cool residential and small commercial buildings, geothermal district heating systems are needed for larger buildings and communities. Geothermal district heating systems supply energy to buildings and industries via a distribution network.
THE PROBLEM
Current Geothermal Heating & Cooling
The majority of district heating systems utilize low temperature geothermal resources found at shallow depths.

While the shallow temperatures are hot enough for direct heating and cooling, many of these reservoirs lack sufficient permeability for fluid flow and heat recovery.
The Future of Geothermal Heating & Cooling
There is an enormous supply of geothermal heat in low-permeability rock just below the surface.

In order to recover this heat, we need to create enhanced permeability in shallow geothermal reservoirs to enable fluid to circulate through the hot-rock system.
The Future of Geothermal Heating Systems
There is an enormous supply of geothermal heat in low-permeability rock just below the surface.

In order to recover this heat, we need to create enhanced permeability in shallow geothermal reservoirs to enable fluid to circulate through the hot-rock system.
THE SOLUTION
How Electrical Reservoir Stimulation Increases Geothermal Heat Production
Electrical reservoir stimulation increases permeability and fluid flow rate within the geothermal system, which increases the amount of heat energy that can be extracted.

Low permeability resources are available over a larger geographic area and represent about 100x more resource potential compared to traditional hydrothermal resources.

Low-permeability resources have the potential to supply 320 GWth if they are developed for geothermal district heating. This energy could support as many as 17,500 geothermal district-heating installations across the United States—sufficient to satisfy the demand of over 45 million households.

Environmental Impact

A single geothermal district heating and cooling facility can eliminate 20,000 tons of CO2 annually

195 million tons of CO2 emissions avoided by 2030 by global district heating and cooling systems

Direct utilization of geothermal heat can eliminate 352 million barrels of oil annually

Direct Use of Geothermal Heat Can Apply to a Wide Range of Industrial Applications
Direct uses of geo thermal heat key
Figure Note: At geothermal temperatures not suitable for power production (less than 150°C), geothermal heat is still a valuable energy source.

Source: Department of Energy, DOE, “GeoVision: Harnessing the Heat Beneath Our Feet.” Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy, Geothermal Technologies Office, (2016).
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